IN THE presence of God, human effort is the secondary thing, the primary reason is God’s decision itself. The adage that we have known said, “Man proposes, God disposes”. There are two subjects; man and God. If these two subjects are seen as vis a vis, we will be dragged into qadariyah vs jabbariyah (qadariyah is a doctrine of free will, jabbariyah is a doctrine that the creature is forced to do its acts without any choice on its part) debate that almost no midpoint.
Qadariyah rational followers would not accept it if all that happens is believed to be destiny or God’s decision. So they ask where the significance of man’s role and man’s effort when all of those are the providence of God. For what human’s endeavor if in the end God decides. And maybe His decision will be different with the expectation. They seem to forget that if humans plan and then the results are in accordance with the plan, actually the success itself is also the decision of God.
Conversely, when people have desire then planning something and having taken all steps into that direction but finally fail then there are two things that will be perceived. First, they feel useless with all those efforts. Yet, when it is be examined, the futility arises because we see it from our expectation point of view. Meanwhile, we need to ask whether, for God, all that things are useless or not calculated. Secondly, at the time the failure occurs, it is usually “the scape goat” that is easy to blame is destiny. We use the word “destiny” only to describe something that we do not want or we do not expect. Synonym of that word is fate. A sufi once said that verily fate does not exist when we stop hoping.
Meanwhile, Jabbariyah’s view associated with this fatalistic attitude is actually look at to the final analysis, look at to the end, at the deeper layers not at the process. Thus, substantially Jabbariyah also did not say people do not need planning or efforts. After all, when we read it from a saying above, it is clear that people also must do something, it means God will not dispose if man does not propose. Although, actually God freely willed to determine anything apart from the desire of man. But in the context of change, human still be a subject that must be move.
The problem here is when man has a “carnal desire” and the desire to be able to make sure everything he wants or he wishes. So we plan and if possible we must succeed. That is what we want. Man want a full power over his life and unconsciously ignore the role of the Almighty. As if human is not willing to so-called “has no ability” in the presence of the expanse of God’s power.
Qadariyah and Jabbariyah issues apparently it was not merely monopoly of theology debate but in the context of Indonesia, for example, is also part of the social politics discourse. In the early days of development era, along with the development of social sciences, also developed from the various problems related to development (programs, policy, implications, etc.), the discussion about mentality and human ethos that is assumed as a required conditions for the course of development, apparently also related to the realm of Qadariyah and Jabarriyah. Indirectly, it can be seen that human beings with high ethos (free will and Jabbariyah) which is deemed to meet the needs of this development. They are the modern humans, according to Alex Inkeles. In the same context, Cak Nur (Nurcholish Madjid) has also written “Etos Kerja dalam Islam Di Tengah Ideologi-ideologi Lain” (Read Cak Nur’s book, Agama dan Kemanusiaan: Membangun Tradisi dan Visi Baru Islam Indonesia, Paramadina, Jakarta, 1995). Even long before that, Haji Agus Salim, one of Indonesian national hero, also felt necessary to write a thin book titled A Philosophical Explanation of Tauhid, Taqdir and Tawakkal to put back the meaning of destiny and trusting in God’s plan which has been misunderstood.
Now the national development during the New Order period has passed. Indonesia entered a period of reformation that have lasted more than ten years. Various conditions have occurred in Indonesia. Whether it is in the realm of the political, social, cultural and nature. Many people are concerned and pessimistic about the future of Indonesia in terms of aspects of the existing political leadership, socio-culture changes so fast, radicalism and extremism spread, weak national defense policy and easy to be controlled by other nations including its own neighbor, economic life increasingly difficult, etc. Also corruption is everywhere. More over social conflicts occur here and there.
To whom do we hope of changes towards a better condition? In brief words, in fact by looking at to the national current state, we desperately need “God’s role”. Because so much we have heard that sciences cannot explain and understand the complications of Indonesia, a vast nation whose ailing and plundered by foreign nations. God’s role that was needed is His Qudroh (Qudroh means: power), that ever been delivered by Cak Nun.
There are two strengths of God, according to Cak Nun, the first is sunnah and the second is qudroh. Sunnah is a pattern or causality which logically must be happen. For example: paper met fire then the sunnah is burned. The Qudrah is God’s prerogative to change or not to change everything. “In Indonesia’s case, the changes are not enough for just sunnah, but also require God’s Qudrah,” Cak Nun emphasized.
But unfortunately, sometimes, we might be “excessively” too modern and rational, just called anything relating to God we had allergy (resist). For example when we pray, we are accused as Jabbariyah. As if people pray do not do anything, and even prayer itself is not considered as “a thing “. Whereas that is required by Indonesia is Qudratullah.